Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Baron of Clare

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Gilbert de Clare
2nd Baron of Clare
1st Lord Marcher of Cardigan
Fitz Gilbert de Clare.png
Coat of Arms Associated with House de Clare
Hereditary
Lord of Clare1090-1117
PredecessorRichard Fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare
SuccessorRichard de Clare, 3rd Baron of Clare
SpouseAdeliza de Breteuil
FamilyHouse de Clare
FatherRichard Fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare
MotherRohese de Giffard
Born1066
Clare Castle, Suffolk, Kingdom of England
Died1117
BuriedTonbridge Priory
OccupationPeerage of England

Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Baron of Clare (1066-1117), was the son of Richard Fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare (1035–1090) by his wife Rohese de Giffard. He married Adeliza de Breteuil and had eight children by that marriage. He was one of the first to use the "de Clare" designation instead of "Fitz" after the Honor of Clare (his English Barony) thus creating the Noble House of De Clare in England.

Life

The Death of King William Rufus of England.

Gilbert de Clare was born in 1055 at Clare, Suffolk, England, and was the second born and an heir of Richard Fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare by his wife Rohese de Giffard.[1] He succeeded to his father's possessions in England in 1088 when his father retired to a monastery;[2] his brother, Roger Fitz Richard, inherited his father's lands in Normandy.[3] That same year he, along with his brother Roger, fortified his castle at Tonbridge against the forces of William Rufus. But his castle was stormed, Gilbert was wounded and taken prisoner.[4] He was with Henry I at his Christmas court at Westminster in 1101.[4]

It has been hinted, by modern historians, that Gilbert de Clare, as a part of a baronial conspiracy, played some part in the suspicious death of William II. Gilbert de Clare, like his father Richard de Clare, took part in the rebellion against King William Rufus in 1088. After a two day siege at Tonbridge Castle, the de Clare family was forced to surrender to the king's forces. Lord de Clare was punished by having his castle and the town of Tonbridge burnt to the ground. Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Lord of Clare's father Richard was also forced to live in a monastery where he died three years later. Gilbert was allowed to keep the family estates and in June 1095 fought with William Rufus against the Scots. He is also believed to have taken part in William's military campaigns in Wales and Normandy.

In 1110, King Henry I of England took Cardigan from Owain ap Cadwgan, son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn as punishment for a number of crimes including that of the abduction of Nest, wife of Gerald de Windsor. In turn Henry gave the Marcher Lordship of Cardigan, including Cardigan Castle to Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Lord of Clare. He founded the Stoke-By-Clare Priory, in Suffolk, Kingdom of England. House de Clare would break off into two distinct branches when his child Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke became the Earl of Pembroke. His child would become one of the most powerful Noblemen in all of Ireland and feared everywhere in the British Isles.

Death of King William Rufus of England

On 2nd August 1100, the harsh, violent, cynical ruler, who was the second Norman King of England, mysteriously met his death while hunting in the New Forest. William Rufus went hunting at Brockenhurst in the New Forest. Gilbert de Clare and his younger brother, Roger of Clare, were with the king. Another man in the hunting party was Walter Tyrell, Lord de Poix who was married to Richard de Clare's daughter, Adelize de Clare. Also present was William Rufus' younger brother Henry. During the hunt, Walter Tyrell fired an arrow at a stag. The arrow missed the animal and hit William Rufus in the chest. Within a few minutes the king was dead. Walter Tyrell jumped on his horse and made off at great speed. He escaped to the Kingdom of France and never returned again to the Kingdom of England.

Titles

Gilbert de Clare held many titles during his lifetime. He acquired the Marcher Lordship of Cardigan in Wales thus automatically becoming the Lord of Cardigan Castle. He is known by his English Barony of Clare. The Barony of Clare was comprised of 172 Manorial Lordships mainking his a Lord of the Manor of all those 172 Manorial Lordships. During his life he spend most of his time at Tonbridge Castle which, at the time, was the caput of his authority thus, he was also the 2nd Lord of Tonbridge Castle

Family

About 1088, Gilbert married Adeliza/Alice de Claremont, daughter of Hugh, Count of Clermont, and Margaret de Roucy. Gilbert and Adeliza had at least eight children:[5]

Death

GIlbert de Clare died in 1117 while trying to make it home. He was buried at Tonbridge Priory before it was destroyed.

References

  1. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1913), p. 242
  2. Frank Barlow, William Rufus (Berkeley & Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1983), p. 73
  3. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1913), p. 243 & n. (a)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Template:Cite DNB
  5. Frank Barlow, William Rufus (Berkeley & Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1983), p. 140