Richard Fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare

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Richard Fitz Gilbert
1st Baron of Clare
1st Baron of Bienfaite
1st Baron of Orbect
3rd Count of Brionne
1st Baron of Tonbridge
De Clare.png
The Coat of Arms used by the de Clare family
Lord of Clare1066-1090
SuccessorGilbert de Clare
SpouseRohese de Giffard
Titles and styles
Grand Justiciary of England
FamilyHouse de Clare
FatherGilbert de Brionne
Born1030
Brionne Castle, Duchy of Normandy, Kingdom of France
Died1091
Saint Neots Priory, Huntingdonshire, Kingdom of England
BuriedSaint Neots Priory, Huntingdonshire, Kingdom of England

Richard fitz Gilbert, 1st Baron of Clare (1030-1091), was a Norman Lord who participated in the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and was styled "de Bienfaite", "de Clare", and of "Tonbridge" from his various estates in England, but he never called himself Richard de Clare or used de Clare as his surname. It was his eldest child and heir that would be the first to be officially called "de Clare" after their Honor of Clare.[1][2][3] He was one of the many Norman nobles who were handsomely rewarded by the Duke of Normandy after they conquered England.

Life

He was the son of Gilbert de Brionne, 2nd Count of Eu in Normandy.[2] Gilbert was a guardian of the young duke William and when he was killed by Ralph de Wacy in 1040, his two older sons Richard and Gilbert fled to Flanders.[4] On his later return to Normandy Richard was rewarded with the lordship of Saint-Martin-de-Bienfaite-la-Cressonnière and Orbec in Normandy.[4] In 1066, Richard came into England with his kinsman William the Conqueror, and received from him great advancement in honour and possessions.[2] The Dictionary of National Biography and other sources are vague and sometimes contradictory about when the name de Clare came into common usage, but what we do know is that Richard fitz Gilbert (of Tonbridge), the earliest identifiable progenitor of the family, is once referred to as Richard of Clare in the Suffolk return of the Domesday Book.[5]

Rewards

He was rewarded with 176 lordships and large grants of land in England, including the right to build the castles of Clare and of Tonbridge. Richard fitz Gilbert received the lordship of Clare, in Suffolk, where parts of the wall of Clare Castle still stand.[6] He was thus Lord of Clare. Some contemporaneous and later sources called him Earl of Clare, though many modern sources view the title as a "Style". He served as Joint Chief Justiciar in William's absence, and played a major part in suppressing the revolt of 1075. He traded the County of Brionne in the Duchy of Normandy for Barony of Tonbridge. He later built Tonbridge Castle.

Rebel Baron

On the Conqueror's death, Richard and other great Norman barons, including Odo of Bayeux, Robert, Count of Mortain, William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford and Geoffrey de Montbray, led a rebellion against the rule of William Rufus in order to place Robert Curthose on the throne. However, most Normans in England remained loyal. William Rufus and his army successfully attacked the rebel strongholds at Tonbridge, Pevensey and Rochester.[7]

Family

He married Rohese de Giffard, daugther of Walter de Giffard, Baron of Longueville (1010-1084) by his wife Agnes Ermentrude Fleitel (1014-1113), and had eight children by that marriage:

Lord de Clare was buried in Saint Neots Priory in 1091. His widow was still living in 1113. His lands were inherited by his son, Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Lord of Clare. There is nothing left today of his Priory.

References

  1. Domesday Map website - image of Betchworth's entry and transcription in summary retrieved 2012-10-30 Normally de Tonebridge in Surrey
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. III (The St. Catherine Press, London, 1913), p. 242
  3. Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Band III Teilband 1 (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 156
  4. 4.0 4.1 J.H. Round, 'The Family of Clare', The Archaeological Journal, Vol. 56 2nd series Vol 6 (1899), p. 224
  5. The Suffolk return of the Domesday Survey (c. 1086) (ed. A. Rumble, Suffolk, 2 vols (Chichester, 1986), 67 ~ 1)
  6. The Royal Ancestry Bible Royal ancestors of 300 American Families By Michel L. Call ISBN 1-933194-22-7 (chart 1696)
  7. A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217–1314 by Michael Altschul (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, 1965)